What techniques do the tech giants like Meta and Google use to collect data on essentially all of the world’s internet users? Before we answer that question, we need to make couple of observations. 1) If you use the tech giants’ services, it equates to voluntarily giving your data away. For example, if you use Facebook, Meta collects your activity there. If you use Chrome, Google registers every step you take in the web browser. And no, incognito mode doesn’t save you. 2) You don’t even need to use the tech giants’ services for them to keep track of how you behave online. They reach far beyond their own user base when they collect data. Here you can read more about the extent to which they track you on sites you visit and how much data they have on the searches you do.
Now let’s take a look at how the data is collected. And it’s point 2 we’ll be focusing on. Because this type of mass surveillance takes place without people being conscious of it, and without them having given their consent to it.
We’ll go through the technologies used to check that it’s you visiting a certain site or doing a particular search. These tools are essential for the tech giants to collect data. They have to keep track of the fact that it’s you and nobody else who comes to a particular site, they have to be certain it was you that did that last Google search to add it to the right pile. Identification is the key to being able to build a profile of you. Once they know it’s you out there browsing, they start up the heavy machinery: everything you do goes into huge AI and machine learning systems that register, categorize and analyze your behavior. So they can predict what you will do next, so they can try to influence you in a particular direction for commercial or political gain. Let’s start with the most commonly used identification technique: your IP address.
Your IP address: the most common and simplest way of identifying you.
Everyone who has internet access has been allocated an IP address by their internet provider. This is part of the internet’s basic structure. Every website you visit also has an IP address, and it’s the IP addresses that make sure the traffic goes to the right place when it’s sent back and forth. This is good (you want the internet to work), but it also means we each have a digital ID card that the internet service providers use to register all the sites you visit. They are forced to carry out this logging by law in most countries. The idea is that it should be possible to reveal details about internet traffic and information about who is behind a particular IP address in case an authority asks for it (for example if the police require it during an investigation). But it doesn’t stop there. Depending on what country you’re in, it’s more or less likely that in practice the internet service providers give the authorities continuous access to traffic regardless of whether or not a crime has been committed. Or even sell your online behavior to make money.
There are also other reasons for concealing your IP address (via a VPN) because IP addresses are used in several other contexts to identify, track and map your activity. The state uses IP addresses when it eavesdrops on all of our traffic by quite simply connecting to the large internet cables that physically run between countries. And of course there are always the tech companies that use IP addresses when they carry out mass surveillance for commercial purposes.
When tech giants and data brokers employ different techniques to pursue you from one site to another and map your movement patterns on the internet, one of the things they use to identify you is your IP address. The same thing applies when they study in detail what you do on each site (which texts you read, which images you stop at, which purchases you make, which products you quickly skim past, which videos you watch and so on). IP addresses are used to link the activity and the person.
We can’t be sufficiently clear here: Your IP address equates to sticking up your hand and shouting ‘Here I am’. It’s the easiest way to track you on the internet. And the only way to conceal your IP address, and to discard your digital ID card, is to use a trustworthy VPN (or the Tor Network). This is the reason why Mullvad was started once upon a time (in 2009, to be precise).
Third-party cookies: tracking that you accept (because you actually have no choice).
Just like IP addresses, cookies have long been part of how the internet is constructed. Cookies are on websites so the site can remember things about you – and in fact so that the site works at all. For example: you visit an e-retailer and add a product to your shopping cart. A cookie remembers the product is there when you click to go to the checkout. It’s thanks to a cookie that you can stay logged into a site over time. When you choose a language on a website it’s the same thing; tiny text files (which is what cookies are) are saved locally on your computer or phone and make sure the same language is used next time you visit. Cookies make the internet a comfortable place to visit. So why is there such a fuss about cookies? Well, because there are different types of cookies.
There are cookies placed on the site by whoever owns it, so that the website is user-friendly. This type of cookie is known as a first-party cookie. They’re there to give functionality to the visitor. But then there are cookies that are placed on the site for another purpose: to register your visit for somebody other than the site owner. These are called third-party cookies and they’re often linked to the tech giants such as Meta and Google (or to data brokers). And because these third-party cookies are placed on the majority of websites in the world, this type of cookie makes it possible for them to monitor your movement patterns. When you hop from a news site to an e-commerce site to a streaming service, the tech giants are there every time with their cookies. And that’s all they need to be able to build a single huge list of the sites you visit, and then, with the help of AI and machine learning, to build a profile of your online behavior. This type of cookie is why ads stalk you online. This type of cookie is what maps your life.
You can say No to cookies, but sometimes that doesn't even help. There are what are called 'essential cookies' that work even if you click 'Reject all'. These include cookies from the tech giants.
You can say No to cookies. Everybody who’s ever been online knows that you have to click Accept, Manage or Reject cookies the first time you visit a site. The problem is that the infrastructure is constructed in such a way that you actually don’t have a choice. There’s widespread cookie fatigue that means we routinely click Accept to move on. Nobody can be bothered to read the almost endless user terms and conditions that appear when you click Manage cookies. And the cookie warnings are also designed for you to press Accept. The concept of dark patterns means that Accept is often a large, bold green button and that Manage cookies and Reject cookies are more or less hidden or incredibly complicated to use.
Still worse, even if you click Reject cookies, you can’t be sure your visit won’t be registered by a third party. There are cookies that are ‘necessary’. You’ve undoubtedly seen the choice Accept only essential cookies.You may think ‘essential cookies’ are the same thing as functional cookies, but that’s not true. If you click through and start to read the apparently endless terms and conditions, you often find big tech companies listed under ‘essential cookies’. And in the small print, you can also see that this type of cookies can often kick in even if you choose Reject all cookies. Because the site owner has an essential collaboration with the tech giants that you don’t even have the option to reject. And here’s one more detail before we move on: if a website only uses functional cookies, the ones the website needs to work as it’s supposed to work, you don’t even need to provide a cookie warning. And so you don’t even need to have the visitor click Accept. That’s why you don’t have to go through that process when you visit Mullvad’s site.
So what can you do to prevent third-party cookies from following you wherever you go? The easiest thing is to run a web browser like Mullvad Browser, which handles that and many other things for you (cookies and IP addresses are, as you’ll see if you read on, not the only way to track you). But otherwise, all you can do is be persistent and clear out your cookies (and cache) every time you’ve used your web browser. You can also use many different plug-ins and extensions that block third-party cookies. The problem is that even if you mask your IP address with a VPN and make sure you block or clear all of your cookies from time to time, there are other ways to track you via your web browser. And this is where we introduce you to browser fingerprinting.
What makes fingerprinting a threat to online privacy? It is pretty simple. There is no need to ask for permissions to collect all this information.
The Tor Project
Browser fingerprinting: tracking technology that works in the shadows.
When you visit a website, the site uses technology to ask a number of questions of your web browser: this could be the version of web browser you’re using, whether you’re visiting on mobile or desktop, which language you have set, the time zone you’re in, the different plug-ins and fonts you have installed, your screen resolution and so on. Many of the questions are also about your hardware: for example how fast your processor is and what graphics card you have installed. These are questions asked to allow the web browser to present the site in the best possible way. Just like cookies, this is part of the basic fabric of the internet that allows it to be as user-friendly as it is. But the problem is that questions are also asked that have nothing to do with functionality, but which are only there to identify and track you. The number of questions asked and the combination of answers makes it possible to take a unique fingerprint of you as a visitor. You can read more about how browser fingerprinting works here. Let’s conclude by saying that in a time where third-party cookies are under legal pressure, browser fingerprinting plays by completely different rules. It’s quite simply technology that you can’t dismiss by clicking Reject all. Because the tracking takes place completely in the shadows. And when the world begins to set restrictions on how the tech giants monitor people via cookies and IP addresses, it’s not a wild guess to expect them to use fingerprinting to an even greater extent in the future. You can read about how Mullvad Browser counteracts fingerprinting here.
Surveillance via third-party scripts: how they keep track of exactly what you do online.
A cookie can only identify you when you visit a site. If a cookie from the same third-party actor turns up on the next site you visit, they can start to follow you online and build a profile of how you move. The same is true with the IP address. It’s a unique ID card to make sure it’s you on the site. When it comes to scripts, things are a little different. They can be used to construct a browser fingerprint of you and so identify you. But above all, they can be used to take a closer look at exactly what you’re doing on the site. Scripts can find out exactly which minutes of the video you watch (and not just that you’re visiting YouTube again). Scripts can read how you scroll on a site, which ads you stop at and whether you’ve read the whole article or moved on after just half of it. It was scripts that Facebook used to collect what people had written in comment fields but then deleted and never posted. Just collecting metadata – in other words the data that, together, build a profile of how you move online – is enough to map someone’s life. But scripts add an extra layer. You can read more about how much the tech giants record using this technology here.
As we mentioned above, you can block third-party scripts, and Mullvad Browser has technology to do just that. But it’s important to remember that if a data collector succeeds in recording exactly what you’re doing on a site via scripts, they still need to identify that it’s you visiting for it to have any effect. If you mask your IP address using a trustworthy VPN and use a web browser that makes sure it’s hard to identify you via cookies and fingerprints, it doesn’t matter how accurately they can measure which parts of a YouTube video you most enjoyed – they still don’t know that it’s you.
Let’s finish with a reminder: Using a trustworthy VPN and a privacy-focused browser is an easy way to counteract these types of data collection and mass surveillance, however it’s worth to emphasize that the technological development is moving fast and other methods of monitoring whole populations will become more and more common.On the other hand, Mullvad will always keep on developing technical resistance against mass surveillance.